The bottom line is that each pitch category needs to be populated with concepts. The principal difficulty in finding effective concepts is that adults' understanding of sound is not embodied and integral (a bell is F-sharp) but causal and dissociated (a bell produces F-sharp).
...it would seem that in trying to teach adults a child-like ability like AP it may be successful if the process employed to teach children, for example, the above mathematics concepts, i.e. a continual increase in abstraction, were reversed.
We obviously as adults have the ability of this kind of perception and labelling because we can name colours in this way. It is just that in the case of AP our minds have been trained to abstraction and not toward the embodiment or integrality cited above.
We have to force the adult to go, to continue the analogy, from the 'multiplicative' stage back through the other stages to 'counting all'. The trick will be finding out what the stages of development in abstraction are as concerns pitch. Then it maybe easy enough to go back through them.