Sorry in advance for using my reply as a segue into a longer bit, but I guess all these things are related, huh...
I do think that "physical location of a key" is what neilsonite meant by "location," and I totally agree with the notion that it's a central ability for producing a pitch on an instrument, since you can't have kinesthetic memory without a mental map, can ya. Maybe the term is spatio-temporal mapping, or something. And I think that such location-mapping has correlates in other skills -- like typing, and AP:
As far as just knowing the computer keyboard is concerned, it's all about mapping it, knowing intuitively and immediately that "O" goes here, "Z" goes there, and so on. Even though the most convenient -- and therefore fastest -- way to type FISH is to use L2-R3-L4-R2 (left second finger...), most of us can look down and immediately know how to type FISH with just one, two, or three fingers. Convenience and habit do the most for typing speed and accuracy, but your mental map of the keyboard (not necessarily visual like a photographic image, but spatial) is still a powerful -- and separate -- ability! As a short experiment, imagine a keyboard floating before your face, and now with your eyes closed, use one finger to type out "pie." Now do the same thing with "gwyht." The exercises require the isolated use of computer-keyboard "AP." I don't mean to undermine the importance of practice and convenience, which allow you to type familiar words and phrases quickly and accurately, but I do firmly believe these are different things than the computer-keyboard "AP." And although it's possible to be a pretty good typist without really spatially mapping the letters on the keyboard (by learning finger-key associations, memorizing word formations, and so on), I do think that a good memory for letter locations makes it easier to quickly learn to type new words, and to do things like type with just one hand or a couple fingers with pretty remarkable speed, given the practical constraints.
And I should add that just because you can learn one-hand typing, doesn't mean the skills involved are the natural strategy we employ when typing normally. Inversions are easy, thanks to physiological symmetry, but not necessary.
In any case, I think I have a pretty clear understanding of AP now. It's like having that "map" in your aural imagination. Note names, large-scale musical patterns, "symbolic structures," phrases, and so on are different: they're products of convenience and/or practice. Those are essential musical skills for doing all the things a musician does, and larger kinesthetic and structural impulses allow for developing a splendid talent in interpretation, improvisation and composition. But they aren't AP. We shouldn't make AP out to be something it isn't: it's the product of long-term note memory. It is an intimate aural knowledge of any given pitch according to a mental mapping of sorts. It's easy to have short-term AP for any given pitch as APB demonstrates. And I get the feeling that with practice players can extend both the duration of note memory and the quantity of notes.
How much can AP help with music? Well, if you're a performer -- keyboard player, singer, etc. -- you can hear the note in your mind before you play it, which aids greatly in memorization and sight-reading. It certainly makes it easier to learn melodic patterns, chord progressions, and so on. If you're a composer, you don't need to constantly check what you imagine against an instrument -- writing it down or remembering it has the same function. Of course, analysis, remembering whole phrases, and other complex high-level structural impulses are all separate, learned abilities, but I'd think that (just like with typing), an active mental map -- the long term memory of individual sounds -- makes those abilities a whole lot easier to learn and employ.
We're left with a chicken-or-egg question; of course AP helps with all those high-level skills, but how much does learning all of those high-level skills contribute to acquiring AP? Do they feed off each other? When learning to type, you start with memorizing key-finger positions and so on, and after enough practice at typing words and phrases, you gradually form a mental map of the keyboard. Is the same true in music? Does practice make perfect pitch, even though it's a separate ability?
I guess my point is, I agree there are so many more things that may or may not play an integral role in AP development for adults and older children, but I also think we should NOT conflate those skills and experiences into AP, especially when it comes to something as fundamental as making definitions.